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Domain:
A domain name is an recognition thread that define a realm of managerial independence, power, or manage in the Internet. Domain names are shaped by the system and events of the Domain Name System (DNS).
Domain names are use in various networking context and application-specific naming and address purposes. In universal, a domain name represent an Internet Protocol (IP) reserve, such as a individual computer use to right of entry the Internet, a server PC hosting a web site, or the mesh site itself or some additional repair communicate via the Internet.
 Domain names are prearranged in secondary levels of the DNS core domain, which is anonymous. The first-level set of area names are the top-level domain (TLDs), counting the general top-level domain (gTLDs), such as the famous domain com, net plus org, and the state code top-level domain (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domain in the DNS pecking order are the second-level and third-level domain names that are characteristically unlock for condition by end-users that wish to attach local region network to the Internet, create other openly easy to get to Internet capital or run web sites. The register of these domain names is more often than not administer by domain name registrars who sell their armed forces to the public.

 Purpose
Domain names give out as humanly-memorable names for Internet participant, like computer, network, and armed forces. A area name represent an Internet Protocol (IP) reserve. person Internet crowd computer use domain names as host identifiers, or hostnames. Hostnames are the sheet label in the domain person's name scheme typically without additional secondary domain name room. Hostnames appear as a part in Uniform reserve Locators for Internet resources such as web sites.
 Domain name are also used as easy recognition label to point to possession or manage of a reserve. Such example are the kingdom identifiers used in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), the DomainKeys second-hand to confirm DNS domains in electronic mail system, and in a lot of other Uniform reserve Identifiers.

An imperative meaning of domain names is to give with no trouble familiar and memorizable name to numerically address Internet resources. This generalization allows any reserve to be enthused to a dissimilar physical site in the address topology of the system, globally or nearby in an intranet. Such a move frequently require altering the IP lecture to of a reserve and the matching translation of this IP address to and from its domain person's name.
Domain name are often referred to merely as domains and area name registrants are commonly referred to as domain owner, though domain name register with a registrar does not award any lawful possession of the domain first name, only an restricted right of use. The use of domain names in trade may topic them to brand law. In 2010, the figure of active domains reached 196 million.

History:
 Put into practice of using a name as a easy unforgettable concept of a host's arithmetical address on a PC network dates rear to the ARPANET era, previous to the arrival of today's profitable Internet. In the early network, each computer on the network retrieved the hosts file (host.txt) from a computer at SRI (now SRI International). Which mapped PC host names to arithmetical address. The speedy development of the complex made it impractical to continue a centrally planned hostname registry and in 1983 the Domain Name scheme was introduce on the ARPANET and available by the Internet commerce Task Force as RFC 882 and RFC 883.

 Domain name registration
The first profitable Internet domain person's name, in the TLD com, was register on 15 March 1985 in the name Symbolics.com by Symbolics Inc., a PC systems firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
By 1992 smaller amount than 15,000 com domains had been registered. In December 2009 there were 192 million domain names. A large portion of them are in the com TLD, which as of March 15, 2010 had 84 million domain names, including 11.9 million online business and e-commerce sites, 4.3 million activity sites, 3.1 million money connected sites, and 1.8 million sports education sites.

Administration
 The correct to use a domain name is delegate by domain name registrars, which are credited by the Internet business for assign Names and Numbers (ICANN), the association charged with supervision the name and figure systems of the Internet. In adding to ICANN, each top-level domain (TLD) is maintained and serviced technically by an administrative organization operating a registry. A registry is responsible for maintaining the database of names registered within the TLD it administers. The registry receives registration information from each domain name registrar authorized to assign names in the corresponding TLD and publishes the in order using a special service, the whois protocol.
 Registries and registrars usually accuse an annual fee for the repair of delegating a domain person's name to a user and as long as a default set of name servers. Often, this deal is termed a sale or rent of the domain name, and the registrant may from time to time be called an "owner", but no such lawful association is actually connected with the business, only the restricted right to use the domain name. More correctly, authorized users are known as "registrants" or as "domain holders".