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Seven wonders of the world:-         
                                                                                                                                                                                      
7-wonders


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There are seven most popular places in the world who is called seven wonders of the world.
 There are following names of  the wonders of the world.
 1. Taj mahal in India.-
 2. Colosseum.-
 3. Great wall of China.-
 4. Chichenitza, Mexico-
 5. Machu pichhu. Peru.-
 6. Christ redeemer, Brasil-
 7. Petra, Jordan-





Taj mahal
taj mahal
The Taj Mahal of Agra is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, for reasons more than just looking glorious. The history of Taj Mahal that adds a psyche to its brilliance: a psyche that is filled with love, loss, remorse, and love again. 
An example of how profoundly a man loved with his wife, that even after she continued but a memory, he made sure that this memory would never dissolve. This man was the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, who was head-over-heels in love with his wife Mumtaz Mahal. She was a Muslim Persian princess (her name Arjumand Banu Begum before marriage) and he was the son of the Mughal Emperor Jehangir and grandson of Akbar the Great. It was at the age of 14 that he met Mumtaz  Mahal and fell in love with her. After Five years  in the year 1612, they got married.
Mumtaz Mahal, an inseparable associate of Shah Jahan, died in 1631, while giving birth to their 14th child. It was in the memory of his dear wife that Shah Jahan built a glorious monument as a tribute to her, which we today know as the "Taj Mahal". The construction of Taj Mahal started in the year 1631. Freemason, stonecutters, inlayers, carvers, painters, calligraphist, dome-builders and other artisans were requisitioned from the whole of the empire and also from Central Asia and Iran, and it took approximately 22 years to build the Taj Mahal. An prototype of love, it made use of the services of 22,000 laborers and 1,000 elephants. The monument was built entirely out of white marble, which was brought in from all over India and central Asia. After an consumption of approximately 32 million rupees (approx US $68000), Taj Mahal was finally completed in the year 1653.

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After the completion of Taj Mahal that Shah Jahan was deposed by his  son Aurangzeb and was put under house arrest at nearby Agra Fort. Shah Jahan, himself also, lies intered in this mausoleum along with his wife. Moving further down the history, it was at the end of the 19th century that British Viceroy Lord Curzon ordered a sweeping regaining project, which was completed in 1908, as a mensuration to restore what was lost during the Indian rebellion of 1857. Taj being blemished by British soldiers and government officials who also disadvantaged the monument of its spotless beauty by chiseling out cherished stones and lapis lazuli from its walls. The British style lawns that we see today adding on to the beauty of Taj were redo around the same time. 
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Chichenitza

Chichenitza
The early Maya ruins of Chichén Itzá, placed on Mexico's Yucatán neck of land about 50 miles inland south of the Caribbean seaboard, embody the remains of one of the biggest and most authoritative city states of the pre-Columbian Americas. While the fully-restored immense core of Chichén Itzá's archaeological zone covers around 5 square kilometers and is one of the most popular tourist attraction in the world, the expected extent of dense inner-city development at the city's peak is thought to have reached 25 square kilometers. However, much of these immediate wreck are unexcavated and are currently enclosed with a assortment of dense forest and farms. Chichén Itzá translate as "At the orifice of the fine of the Itza" in Yucatec Mayan, a location to the near Sacred Cenote, or sinkhole, where offerings were made to various deity and from which the city derivative much of its water provide.

Chichén Itzá was a highly broad-based city with a large range of distinct architectural styles displayed in both its household building and foremost monument. This range is weighty of both local Yucatecan styles and pressure from numerous important Mesoamerican educational groups and clans that were drawn to the city as a provincial center during its long history of profession. The civic heart of Chichén Itzá is delimited by a boundary wall and was the eventual objective of several long, broad stucco-paved roads (plurally known as Sacbeob) important to immediate populace centers and other areas of significance. This central plaza is basically an massive stand defined by three great construction complexes surrounding it. The building along the Great piazza are outwardly deliberate in such a approach as to pay deference to Kukulkan, the feathered serpent religion also connected with a well-known king of the Toltecs who was roughly worshipped in Mexico. Kukulkan was otherwise known as Quetzalcoatl, a expression name and honored by the later Aztec empire up during the Spanish capture.

According to archaeologist Cynthia Kristan-Graham, many structures at the place mirror a notion of city forecast known as a ‘Galactic Polity’; at Chichén Itzá, scale replica of important building bond to their larger midpoint by means of a explicit Sacbe (ceremonial road). This example can be seen at archaeological site of Mayapan as well, which was constructed as a small-scale imitation of Chichén Itzá’s enormous core.
To the plaza's west face is the huge Ball Court, the major in all of Mesoamerica at 154.8 meters in span and restricted by walls triumph over 9 meters in stature. The Pyramid of Kukulkan, also known as El Castillo, is located to the south and reaches 30 meters in stature with a base extending over 55 meters across. The shrine of the Warriors, located to the east, is a four-platform configuration enclosed by 200 round and square column with bas-relief carvings depict individual warriors. This shrine is very similar in plan to the Temple of the warrior in the Toltec city of Tula, over 1000 kilometers away in the northern Valley of Mexico. The Sacred Cenote is placed along a wide stucco-paved Sacbe 300 meters to the north.
additional to the south of Chichén Itzá's Great Plaza are situated several smaller shop complexes, primarily built in the elaborately-carved Puuc (Yucatec Mayan for Hills) architectural style familiar in nearby cities, such as Sayil and Uxmal. These structure complexes date to the similar time phase as these cities. While the traditional monument of the Great Plaza are primarily committed to the adulation of Kukulkan, the construction to the south are mainly devoted to the Maya deity Chaak (or Chac), a curl-nosed divinity primarily related with the bring of rain; these structure made flesh the value of water, as Chichén Itzá was located in a dry tropical forest atmosphere where dearth could without doubt bring common scarcity.
Chichén Itzá contain a relatively wide series of roofing styles, which is unique for a Mayan archaeological site. The site include rectangular beam-and-mortar structure such as the holy place atop El Castillo, stiff or thatch ones such as the roof that perhaps rested atop El Mercado, and Mexican-styled encircling structure such as El Caracol. The mainstream of the structure, nonetheless, were build with the usual Maya corbeled vault, which is a narrow vault made of courses of stone that are projected into an apex, creating a triangular pergola. The Nunnery, so-called by the Spanish as they felt it resemble the convents of Spain, skin tone carved stone latticework and Chaak masks decorate the upper facade and corners of the building.

Nearby is the enthralling arrangement known as the Caracol, a stone configuration around in plan, that formerly generated a cylindrical shape with a arched roof, now to some extent ruined. slender window cut into the surface walls appear to have been deliberate in order to monitor the unequal whereabouts of Venus, which was rash to be the sun's twin and held huge consequence for the Maya, principally in decision pertaining to war. The stairs at the front of the Caracol faces 27.5 degrees north of west, completely in line with the northern positional great of Venus and produce alignments at the building's northeast and southeast corners that footpath both the summer and winter solstices. The Caracol is one of the oldest position observatories in the Americas, and places of interest the huge substance that astrological phenomenon held for the citizens of Chichén Itzá. Chichén Itzá's history as a major following center in the northern Yucatán is general, stretch from the Classic period well into the Post-Classic. Towards the beginning of the 7th century CE, during the beginning of the Late Classic, this Maya agricultural region saw increasing population density and the building of some permanent structure, excluding the Puuc-styled Las Monjas (Nunnery) intricate. It was through the 9th century, though, that the completion begin to turn into a city, and by the early 10th century, during the deadly Classic, Chichén Itzá was a local motivation. As this was occurrence, major Classic-period centers to the south in the innermost Maya lowland, such as Tikal and Palenque, were undergo the profound social and demographic shift generally known as the Classic Maya end. These cities slowly ceased to function as main centers and caused an emigration of people to travel from the densely-populated central valley area to other cities, such as those next to the Gulf coast and in the antique Maya heartland in the volcanic high ground to the south.

The region that traditional the furthermost people expansion through the Terminal common period, however, are the northern lowlands of the Yucatán, where Chichén Itzá became the largest and most prevailing city. With this influx of diverse populations, a powerful new beliefs emerged at Chichén Itzá in the mid-9th century, combining rudiments of the belief system of Classic-period lowland Maya, the militarized Putun Maya from the Gulf Coast (including the Itza), conventional Yucatec Maya viewpoint, and pious beliefs and martial civilization of popular from the Valley of Mexico. These far-flung affiliate integrated the Toltecs, whose sanctuary of the Warriors at their capital Tula bears marked architectural and thematic commonalities with the same-titled multipart at Chichén Itzá. The well-known king Topiltzin Ce Acatl of Tula, often conflated with the deity Quetzalcoatl/Kukulcan, is claimed by ethnohistorical source to have move toward to Chichén Itzá throughout the 10th century CE.

As with many seats in Mesoamerica during the Post-Classic, distinction between customary and regional culture in the Yucatán became distorted as the populations in outsized cities become ethnically-mixed. As a upshot, authority was habitually based more on ideological affiliation or subjugation than rigidly-defined ethnicities. Chichén Itzá, with a typically local Yucatec Maya populace, conventional local alliance with polities such as Uxmal that are reflect in both pictograph inscription and Puuc architectural commonalities. Concurrently, the Putun Maya lineage known as the Itza was expanding its sphere of authority into Yucatán's southwestern Gulf Coast, at the city of Chakanputun (now called Champoton). The Itza were principally maritime trader, their bubble was quite big and they had dynamic canoe-route network as far afield as Honduras. Chichén Itzá had frontiers right through the Maya region along with in the Valley Mexico.
In the mid-9th century, according to the Book of Chilam Balam, the Itza customary a existence at Chichén Itzá, and were decisively in organize of the city by 987 CE. Many of the main construction in and near the Great court (such as the Ball Court and the Caracol) had been build a few decades past, but it was during the Itza stage that these building took on the detailed motifs and immense nature that was to last for the next 200 years. through this stage of Itza control, with help from their Mexican cronies and trade partners, strong armed and devout mores from the Valley of Mexico were covered in Chichén Itzá by the Itza themselves. Some other dominant lineage also held some weight in the city: the Cocom, the Chel, and the Xiu, whose principal was in Uxmal 100 kilometers to the west. All of these cluster vied for power in both Chichén Itzá and across the region; as a result, small-scale warfare and following maneuver were ordinary during the city's long and controlling fluorescence as a midpoint of culture, business, and military might incomparable in the Maya world.

Chichén Itzá is alleged, by the order of Chilam Balam, to have to conclude collapsed in 1221 from a cruel revolt by non-Itza lineages, as well as attacks from the city of Mayapan (which had a city center designed as a small-scale replica of Chichén Itzá) under the Cocom ruler Hunac Ceel. The Itza were provoked out of Chichén Itzá and Mayapan's period of governance began, enduring until the give way of Mayapan in 1441 after a Xiu revolt; this incident distinct the civil wars that begin in the mid 15th century. Chichén Itzá (particularly the Sacred Cenote) unrelenting to be a place of pilgrimage for all the lineages, even while it lay mostly vacant and firmly within Cocom territory. The civil wars sustained for almost a hundred years, fracturing possible Maya alliances against the Spanish, who conquered the common of the Yucatán in 1546. As for the Itza, they were driven far south to the Petén in the central lowland. There, they came to resolve at the island city of Tayasal on Lake Petén Itza, near the prehistoric ruined city of Tikal and on the site of what is now the Guatemalan city of Flores. Being on the whole fierce, isolated, and in a defendable position, the Itza city of Tayasal did not fall to the Spanish until 1697 and represent the last major Maya polity to fall in the long and brutal Spanish occupation.

pictograph records indicate that the Post-Classic Yucatán has a history distinct by the rulership of lineages such as the Itza, Cocom, and Xiu. These lineages were essentially ethnic groups, and massive inscriptions emphasize group identity. This is in stark contrast to expressions of power in the Classic Period Maya polities of the central lowland, which emphasize the divinity of character rulers and their urgent dynastic successors.
Recent archaeological research has presented compelling support that Chichén Itzá actually cease to meaning as a major power midpoint for a time in the early 11th century, 200 years previous than the history designate. If this is true, then there is a large time gap connecting the fall of Chichén Itzá and the rise to regional reputation of Mayapan in the mid-13th century. conceivably the 16th-century archives replicate a prejudiced view of the city's account and decline from the standpoint of the unlike ethnic groups besieged for power in a politically-fractured setting, or perhaps the most recent archaeology is not present an accurate sequential picture. 




Machu pichhu

Machu pichhu
July 24, 1911 is recognized as the date of the "innovation" of the renowned Inca bastion of Machu Picchu, an architectural jewels that had remain unseen for over four centuries under the lush plant life of the Urubamba canyon. This find was made by the controversial American anthropologist and historian with a weakness for archaeology (or, if you like, the explorer), lecturer Hiram Bingham of Yale campus.
Although the innovation is credited to Bingham, according to the Cusco examiner, Simone Waisbard, the find was a probability one, since its first discoverer were rumor has it that Enrique Palma, Gabino Sanchez and Agustin Lizarraga, who missing their names imprinted on one of the rocks there on July 14, 1901. in addition, the Anglo Saxon archaeologist was really look for the city of Vitco, the last protection of the Incas, and their last support alongside the Spaniards. Thus, the consequence of Bingham's innovation would lie in the methodical diffusion of the in sequence. though, for the central character of this sighting, it was the definitive of an draining research attempt, based on in sequence obtain from narrow peasants, as well as on more than a few years of peripatetic and explore the area. ahead of Machu Picchu was exposed, it perhaps created part of the Qollapani and Kutija estate. Over the years, the Q`ente hacienda took ownership of the belongings. The discoverer, Palma, Sanchez and Lizarraga found a home indian, Anacleto Alvarez, who had be paying a rent of twelve soles a year for agricultural rights on the chattels throughout the last eight years, source of revenue there.
The owner of the fundo would in no way have been capable to discover the whole put, due to its utter size, and specially since of its serrated scenery. nation had, in fact, be living in Machu Picchu with no having an idea of its size nor of its significance, let alone being capable to update the world of these things.
Machu Picchu (Old Mountain) is the a large amount significant touristic site of Peru. situated bottomless into the mount forest, it has be visit by millions since its detection by Hiram Bingham in 1911. But it was just on the last a small number of years that Machu Picchu had turn out to be an icon in the tourist´s world. The New Seven Wonders of The World was one, among other reasons ,for that. But it doesn´t material what your acquaintances might have told you concerning Machu Picchu. The knowledge of being there, just on time to see the sun rising for a new day behind the mist of Machu Picchu, is single and memorable. When you finally get there, after coming by train, taxi or bus, fatigue will be gone, erased by the sight of a huge scenery that can left you panting.
You´ll find yourself bounded by nature, your right mind will get overdose by light, pure air, color… and silence. The wonderful silence of Machu Picchu. very old, enormous rocks everywhere, taken as bases for a little huge architectural design master. They were there, lying for centuries, completely cut, sharp, and polished by some difficult method no one could reproduce exactly today. There are no holes connecting them. Not even a bread knife could break through them. The symbol of human variation to nature. The contrary of our nation.
As far as your sight fails to get details: ruins ubiquitously. Ruins going down the hills of Machu Picchu or hiking the most impractical angles right to the sky, vanishing behind the afforest and reappear as an channel that still takes gemstone water hundreds of meters down, right to the Urubamba river.           But, what is Machu Picchu? Which is the starting place of this delightful magnetism that makes populace approximately the globe dying to visit Machu Picchu as the objective of their lives? Machu Picchu is a residual witness of the antique, great history of Peru, when the Inca´s territory ruled in all the Andean area Machu Picchu is situated in the middle Andes of Peru, 2,400 meters over the sea level and near the city of Cuzco, middle of the Inca´s Empire. Machu Picchu has been built in the 15th century, but the reasons for its building are difficult to understand.

Some archaeologists supposed it was a rest put, others supposed it was a stronghold. But they all agree that Machu Picchu was second-hand as a refuge for the people, hiding from the spanish conqueror. And it worked; the invader never originate Machu Picchu. This amazing structure and acquaintance power complete the Incas one of the huge people of the very old world, equal by expert to Egyptians, Mayas and Babylonians. They occupied many other popular. From Colombia in the north, to Chile in the South: 2 million quadrangle kilometers. Only this kind of populace could have been able of building a wonder like Machu Picchu.

Even a few people believe Machu Picchu wreck conceal mystical powers. They believe the whole world energy converge there, rotating Machu Picchu a great power center, where you can cure physically from pessimism and connect to other extent. At least, one obsession is true: Machu Picchu is an unusual place to relax, to ponder and find manually far from the noise, contagion and stress of the contemporary society.

In Machu Picchu you might also find The Intihuatana, The Three Windows, The blessed tetragon, The channel or The holy rest of the Sun. All of them are rooms or chairs were diverse ritual took place, illuminating the beliefs and the higher information of this people in cosmology and physics. If you´re look for wildlife and plants, the  asylum of Machu Picchu offer you one of the main and exotic diversity of class of the planet. With an peaceful climate as structure, colorful orchids, rare nature like the cock-of-the-rock (gallito de las rocas), a valuable genus for birdwatchers, or even the indefinable spectacled bear are coming up for you deep indoors Machu Picchu.

Because of its significance for the civilization and the past of the area, Machu Picchu become a authoritative cause of pride for peruvians. Pride about their past, the levels of know-how, culture, and the communal and military association that the Incas achieve. All of them on paper among the rocks of Machu Picchu.
 Now you have reach the deeper zone of Machu Picchu. Right in frontage of you, a huge and peculiarly fashioned rock block the woodland view. You unexpectedly realized that its outline is parallel to the first sight that welcome you at the foundation.  You consider its the end of the visit, but then you handle to pass the sway, and a whole new mass appears: it´s the Huayna Picchu.

associated with the main wall by a thin member of rock, Huayna Picchu invite you to scale it. It´s a risky conclusion, would you take it or leave it? Up there, the splendor wait for you. At the top, a 360° panoramic of the heap forest, with Machu Picchu ruins at the foundation, is the final repayment. Four hundred meter down, the Urubamba river roar. The day is finale, you are tired and your brain is full of shapes, wonder and inheritance. You don´t desire to go away Machu Picchu. You won´t: Machu Picchu lives indoor you. A world that has been lives now in your brainpower, your strength, you soul.

Petra

Petra





















Christ redeemer

Christ redeemer




















Great wall of China
Great wall of China





















Colosseum

Great wall of China